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Science and mathematics are not trendy subjects, state pupils. As a result, if these topics are mandatory, trainees choose a less complicated stream in senior high school as well as are much less likely to change to college scientific research programs. In addition, female pupils are under-represented in locations such as maths, physics, and astronomy.

Expertise in earth science is really crucial in nation-building. Virtually everything we do every day is connected somehow to Earth: to its land, seas, environment, plants, and also animals. The food we eat, the water we consume, our residences as well as workplaces, the clothing we put on, the energy we make use of, and the air we breathe are all grown in, extracted from, surround, or move through the world.

Science and technology are forms of knowledge used for various social purposes. Science is the knowledge that society uses to understand the natural world, while technology is the knowledge that society uses to survive the natural world. Using these definitions, it is understood that society serves as a background for those forms of knowledge that are to be propagated and that they should be studied in a social context. Society also determines the form and direction of science and technology through three main factors – environment (geography, etc.), historical experience and lifestyle. The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is an outstanding example of society’s influence on shaping the form of science and technology. The precarious position between an enemy state, North Korea, and former colonial lord, Japan, has given impetus to a consistent effort to create sound scientific and technological opportunities. South Korea’s historical experience as one of the poorest countries in the world in the 1960s also contributed to the development of electronics, semiconductor devices and robotics in order to strengthen its economic resources.

After defining knowledge, the question arises as to how new knowledge emerges. This question is answered by the scientific method in which science acts as a way of research. The basic technique of the scientific method is observation, which uses the five human senses to collect qualitative data about the natural world. The scientific method consists in identifying and defining a problem and formulating and testing a hypothesis. The method is aimed at discovering facts and principles. This knowledge is created by a scientific method through empirical verification – using empirical data and observations in order to confirm the truth or to rationally justify the hypothesis. Although the scientific method offers a reliable way of research to generate new knowledge, it also has its drawbacks. Some of these drawbacks include the inability to grasp a phenomenon in its natural environment, the possibility of a defective or manipulated design, a reality in which not everything can be experimented with, and the limitations of scientific equipment and resources.

Science and technology enable people to understand and survive the natural world. The scientific method is used to create new scientific knowledge. Modern civilisation is based on the scientific and technological achievements of the past, which makes science and technology indispensable today. However, scientific knowledge, which is a kind of empirical knowledge, is not the only form of knowledge in the world because it has certain limitations. One of the other forms of knowledge is literature – empirical, hermeneutical and critical at the same time. Both science and literature complement each other. Finally, science is a form of knowledge and also a way of research.